NOTES: The population estimates in this profile are limited to the household population and exclude the population living in institutions, college dormitories, and other group quarters.
In the narrative profile below, if one sample estimate is larger than another, it does not necessarily mean that the same holds for their true values for the entire population. These estimates are derived from a sample of housing units and measure the true values with a degree of uncertainty. In the tabular profiles this uncertainty is represented by the 90 percent confidence interval given for each estimate. For further information on confidence intervals see the Accuracy of the Data document.
Caution should be used when comparing data by race for years before 1999 with those for 2000 due to the Census Bureau's implementation of the October 1997 revised standards for data on race and ethnicity. For the 2000 data, respondents may report one or more races and there are seven (American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, White, Some other race, and Two or more races) instead of five racial tabulation categories. The two or more races category includes all respondents who reported more than one race. See the methodology section for more details regarding these changes.
In addition, caution should be used when comparing population numbers by age, race, and sex for 2000 with all earlier years. The numbers for 2000 have been weighted to be generally consistent with Census 2000 counts.
For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, go to the Census 2000 Supplementary Survey web site www.census.gov/c2ss/www/ and click on Methodology.
POPULATION OF Tennessee : In 2000, Tennessee had a household population of 5,541,336 - 2,853,476 (51 percent) females and 2,687,860 (49 percent) males. The median age was 35.9 years. Twenty-five percent of the population were under 18 years and 12 percent were 65 years and older.
For people reporting one race, 81 percent were White; 15 percent were Black or African American; less than 0.5 percent were American Indian or Alaska Native; 1 percent were Asian; less than 0.5 percent were Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and 1 percent were Some other race. One percent reported Two or more races. Three percent of the people in Tennessee were Hispanic or Latino. Eighty percent of the people in Tennessee were not Hispanic or Latino, White alone. People of Hispanic or Latino origin may be of any race.
HOUSEHOLDS AND FAMILIES: In 2000 there were 2,216,783 households in Tennessee. The average household size was 2.5 people.
Families made up 68 percent of the households in Tennessee that year. This figure includes both married couple families (51 percent) and other families (17 percent). Non-family households made up 32 percent of all households in Tennessee. Most of the non-family households were people living alone, but some were people living in households maintained by non-relatives.
NATIVITY AND LANGUAGE: Four percent of the people living in Tennessee in 2000 were foreign born. Ninety-six percent were native, including 65 percent who were born in Tennessee.
Among people at least five years old living in Tennessee in 2000, 5 percent spoke a language other than English at home. Of those speaking a language other than English at home, 51 percent spoke Spanish and 49 percent spoke some other language; 40 percent reported that they did not speak English "very well."
GEOGRAPHIC MOBILITY: In 2000, 82 percent of the people at least one year old living in Tennessee were living in the same residence one year earlier; 10 percent had moved during the past year from another residence in the same county, 4 percent from another county in the same state, 3 percent from another state, and less than 0.5 percent from abroad.
EDUCATION: In 2000, 78 percent of people 25 years and over had at least graduated from high school and 21 percent had a bachelor's degree or higher. Among people 16 to 19 years old, 11 percent were dropouts; they were not enrolled in school and had not graduated from high school.
The total school enrollment in Tennessee was 1,352,845 in 2000. Preprimary school enrollment was 149,288 and elementary or high school enrollment was 928,745 children. College enrollment was 274,812.
DISABILITY: In Tennessee, among people at least five years old in 2000, 19 percent reported a disability. The likelihood of having a disability varied by age - from 8 percent of people 5 to 20 years old, to 18 percent of people 21 to 64 years old, and to 47 percent of those 65 and older.
INDUSTRIES: In 2000, for the employed population 16 years and older, the leading industries in Tennessee were Services, 38 percent, and Manufacturing, 20 percent.
OCCUPATIONS AND TYPE OF EMPLOYER: Among the most common occupations were: Management, professional, and related occupations, 30 percent; Sales and office occupations, 27 percent; Production, transportation, and material moving occupations, 20 percent; Service occupations, 13 percent; and Construction, extraction and maintenance occupations, 10 percent. Eighty percent of the people employed were Private wage and salary workers; 13 percent were Federal, state, or local government workers; and 6 percent were Self-employed.
TRAVEL TO WORK: Eighty-one percent of Tennessee workers drove to work alone in 2000, 12 percent carpooled, and 1 percent took public transportation. Three percent worked at home. Among those who commuted to work, it took them on average 23 minutes to get to work.
INCOME: The median income of households in Tennessee was $36,145. Eighty percent of the households received earnings and 16 percent received retirement income other than Social Security. Twenty-eight percent of the households received Social Security. The average income from Social Security was $10,667. These income sources are not mutually exclusive; that is, some households received income from more than one source.
POVERTY AND PARTICIPATION IN GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS: In 2000, 14 percent of persons were in poverty. Twenty percent of related children under 18 were below the poverty level, compared with 14 percent of people 65 years old and over. Eleven percent of all families and 31 percent of families with a female householder and no husband present had incomes below the poverty level. Eighteen percent of the households in Tennessee received means-tested public assistance or noncash benefits.
HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS: In 2000, Tennessee had a total of 2,439,448 housing units, 9.1 percent of which were vacant. Of the total housing units, 70 percent were in single-unit structures, 21 percent were in multi-unit structures, and 9 percent were mobile homes. Twenty-two percent of the housing units were built since 1990.
OCCUPIED HOUSING UNIT CHARACTERISTICS: The occupied units consisted of 69 percent that were owner occupied and 31 percent that were renter occupied. There were 9,137 (0.4 percent) and 9,994 (0.5 percent) occupied units lacking plumbing and kitchen facilities, respectively. Three percent of the households did not have telephone service and 7 percent of the households did not have access to a car, truck, or van for private use. Multi-vehicle households were not rare. Thirty-nine percent had two vehicles and another 23 percent had three or more.
HOUSING COSTS: The median monthly housing costs for (specified) mortgaged owners was $869, nonmortgaged owners $234, and (specified) renters $522. Twenty-five percent of owners with mortgages, 9 percent of owners without mortgages, and 38 percent of renters in Tennessee spent 30 percent or more of household income on housing.